The Hindustan Aeronautics HF-24 Marut (Sanskrit: "Spirit of the Tempest") was an Indian fighter-bomber aircraft of the 1960s. It was India's first jet aircraft, first flying on 17 June 1961. Unusually, the wooden mock-up of the aircraft was actually flyable as an air-launched glider.
The Marut was designed by the famed German designer Kurt Tank, but never realised its full potential due to insufficient power. Although originally conceived to operate in the vicinity of Mach 2, the aircraft in fact turned out to be sub-sonic, due to the inability of the Indian government to underwrite a suitably powered engine for the airframe. After the Indian Government conducted its first Nuclear tests at Pokhran, international pressure prevented the import of better engines, or at times, even spares for the Orpheus engines. This would be one of the main reasons for this aircraft's early demise. The lack of power hindered the speed of the aircraft, but with pleasant handling characteristics and good aerobatic capabilities it was well liked by its pilots. It was used in combat in the ground attack role, where its safety features such as manual controls whenever the hydraulic systems failed and twin engines were looked upon favourably and increased survivability.A total of 147 aircraft were built, including 18 two-seat trainers, with production ending in 1970. The last examples were withdrawn from service in 1990.
Given the limited number of Marut units, most Marut squadrons were considerably over-strength for the duration of their lives. According to Brian de Magray, at peak strength No.10 Squadron had on charge 32 Maruts, although the squadron probably did not hold a unit-establishment of more than 16. All in all, the Marut squadrons acquitted themselves very well in the 1971 war. The Marut, as an aircraft, was shown to be tough and capable. No aircraft were ever lost in air-to-air combat. However, 4 were lost to ground fire and two were lost on the ground.The Maruts were in the thick of it, right through the fighting on the western front, and the Squadrons ended the war with a total of three Vir Chakras.
A mock up of the Hf 24 Marut can be seen in Kamla Nehru Park in the city of Pune, India
In the 1971 war, some HF-24 Maruts and Hawker Hunter aircraft were used to assist the post at Battle of Longewala in the morning by the Indian Air Force and was finally able to direct with the strike aircraft being guided to the targets. They were not outfitted with night vision equipment, and so were delayed from conducting combat missions until dawn.. On December 7, 1971, SL Kishan Kumar of No. 220 Squadron, shot down a F-86 Sabre over Nayachor in Sindh, Pakistan. This was the only claim made during the war.
In 1967, one Murut was used as a testbed for the Egyptian Brandner E-300 engine.
Measuring 52 ft 0.75 in (15.87 m) in length and 11 ft 9.75 in (3.60 m) in height, the Marut Mk 1 had a wingspan of 29 ft 6.25 in (9.00 m). Powered by a pair of 4,850 lb st (21.57 kN) Rolls Royce/Bristol Siddeley Orpheus BOr.2 Mk 703 Turbojets built by HAL, the type had a max sea level speed of 705 mph (1134 km/h), initial climb rate of 8,500ft (2,591 m) per minute and low level attack range of 480 miles. The aircraft could climb to 40,000 ft (12,190 m) in 9 minutes 20 seconds. Empty weight was 13,658 lb (6,195 kg). Max take off weight was 24,048 lb (10,908 kg).
- ↑ World Aircraft Information Files Aviation Partwork. Midsummer Books Ltd. File 896 Sheet 2 (A-Z of Aircraft: HAL HT-2 to HAL HA-31 Basant)