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The Kalinin K-5 was a Soviet passenger plane developed by Konstantin Kalinin in the late 1920s and early 1930s. The manufacturer, Kharkiv Aviation Factory, constructed about 260 aircraft.


Konstantin Kalinin thought of an aircraft with 10–12 seats as early as 1926, but work only began in 1927 when Ukrvozdukhput became interested in the plane. The maiden flight happened on 18 October 1929, with the finished prototype from mid-autumn. The K-5 underwent and passed safety trials on 30 May 1930.

Kalinin K-5 M-15

A K-5 fitted with a Bessonov M-15 engine.

A Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet powered the second prototype because of problems with the Gnome et Rhône Bristol Jupiter. More testing commenced with the Hornet-powered prototype, as well as promotional flights. Mass production started in 1930, and early aircraft flew trial routes connecting Kharkiv, Moscow, Mineralnye Vody, and Baku. The Soviet Inspectorate of Civil Aviation grounded the K-5 after problems with the Bessonov M-15 engine.

Kalinin chose the Shvetsov M-22 radial engine, a domestically-produced licenced Bristol Jupiter engine. The M-22 proved reliable, but drag increased and led to low performance. Trials from May to June 1932 confirmed its reliability, but the payload capacity became exceedingly low. The M-15 later became reliable enough to lift the restrictions.

Later, K-5s became fitted with Mikulin M-17F, increasing its power and performance. However, the plane's payload and range decreased from its weight. The first K-5 equipped with the M-17F sustained extensive structural damage in flight tests due to the increased power output, leading to Kalinin strengthening the wing structure.

Kalinin K-5 drawing

A three-view drawing of the K-5.

Operational history[]

Aeroflot replaced its German airliners with the K-5 in regular service. It flew on services connecting Moscow to Kharkiv, Sverdlovsk, Tashkent, and Arkhangelsk, remaining in service until 1940. The K-5 also saw service with the Soviet Air Forces as a transport until 1943.


  • Taylor, Michael John Haddrick (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. p. 547. ISBN 9781851703241.
  • "K-5, K. A. Kalinin". Russian Aviation Museum.
  • "Калинин К-5". Уголок неба.
  • "Калинин К-5 - Kalinin K-5". Авиалайнеры мира.