A regional airliner or a feederliner is a small airliner that is designed to fly up to 100 passengers on short-haul flights, usually feeding larger carriers' airline hubs from small markets. This class of airliners are typically flown by the regional airlines that are either contracted by or subsidiaries of the larger airlines. Regional airliners are used for short trips between smaller towns or from a larger city to a smaller city. Feederliner, commuter, and local service are all alternative terms for the same class of flight operations.
History[edit | edit source]
In the early days of aviation, most aircraft had a relatively short range so that all airlines were "regional" in nature. With the introduction of longer range aircraft, notably flying boats, these shorter range planes increasingly found their niche feeding the newer and longer range airliners by flying passengers to the mainline's airline hubs. Many of these smaller regional airlines were eventually bought by the larger flag carriers.
To keep these short routes economical, the airlines were generally unwilling to spend large amounts of money on new aircraft; at times they used second hand aircraft. Also, as new models slowly emerged, older aircraft were put into this service when they were replaced by progressively longer-range designs. In the immediate post-war era these were typically Douglas DC-3s, although even the De Havilland Dragon Rapide biplane airliner remained in service for some time. This "hand-me-down" process of supplying aircraft continued with designs like the Convair 440, Douglas DC-6 and Vickers Viscount also serving in this role while the first jets were introduced.
Turboprop designs[edit | edit source]
By the mid-1950s, demand for even more economical designs led to the production of the first custom feederliners. These were almost always turboprops, which had fuel economy on par with piston engine designs, but had far lower maintenance costs. Often the time between engine overhaul periods was five times that of the best piston engines. Early examples of these designs include the Fokker F27 Friendship, Avro 748, and Handley Page Dart Herald.
These designs were so successful that it was to be many years before newer designs bettered them enough to make it worthwhile in terms of capital investment to develop. Among the first purpose built airliners developed for the CAB sanctioned local-service airlines in the US, the predecessors of the modern regional airliner industry; was the interim and custom built Fairchild F-27/FH-227's for the needs of these smaller but expanding airlines of the late 1960s.
There were a few other exceptions, generally tailored to more specific roles. For instance, the Handley Page Jetstream (first flight in 1968) was intended for fewer passengers at much higher speeds, displacing smaller designs like the Beechcraft Queen Air. The Fairchild/Swearingen Metro (developed from the original Queen Air through a number of stages) filled a similar niche.
By the 1970s the first generation regional airliners were starting to wear out, but there had been little effort in producing new designs for this market. A varied list of light transport aircraft supplanted by newer and more modern 30 seat designs by Shorts with their Shorts 330 and 360 as well as other aircraft manufacturers, replaced and sometimes provided growth to established commuter markets. Additional development came to the regional airline industry with the arrival of some of the earlier De Havilland Canada types such as the Dash 7 delivered in 1978, but this was tailored more to the short-range and STOL (Short Take-Off and Landing) role than as a regional airliner. Feedback from the airlines was fairly consistent, and De Havilland responded with the Dash 8 in 1984, which had economic benefits over the earlier generation machines, and was faster and quieter as well.
In the early 1980s, the Dash 8's success sparked off development of a number of similar designs, including the ATR 42/72, Saab 340, Embraer Brasilia and Fokker 50. Consequently, there were a relatively large number of aircraft offered by manufacturers in this sector of the market, pushing older 1950s designs from Fokker, Vickers and others into retirement. Due to the high level of competition, production of a number of these types ceased. Saab AB exited the civil aviation market and wrote its debts off, Daimler-Benz Aerospace "pulled the plug" on Dornier, and British Aerospace ended production of their BAe Jetstream 41 after 100 delivered. By 2006 only the ATR 42/72 models and the Dash 8 remained in production.
In 2018, 245.4 million two-way seats were offered on turboprop flights, up from 201.4 million in 2009, with 97% of flights below Template:Cvt and 87% below Template:Cvt, and an average capacity increasing to 51 seats from 44 seats in 2009. The largest user was Air Canada with 12.7 million seats, followed by Flybe with 10.3 million and Wings Air with 9.24 million. Canada was the largest market with 30.5 million seats, then Indonesia with 14.3 and the US with 13.4. The busiest turboprop airport was Vancouver (2.75 Million seats) followed by Toronto Pearson (2.64) then Seattle-Tacoma (2.39).
Regional jets[edit | edit source]
- Main article: Regional jet
Another reason for the downturn in the turboprop market was the introduction of the first regional jets. Although a number of small jets entered service in the 1950s and 60s, notably the Sud Aviation Caravelle, Fokker F28 Fellowship and DC-9, these could not compete in terms of cost of operation with the turboprop designs, and were suitable for routes with small numbers of passengers, as opposed to short routes where fuel economy was paramount. As engine technology improved, this difference continued to narrow, until the higher utilization factors due to higher cruising speeds erased any remaining advantage from lower operating costs.
The earliest example of a true short-range jet is the BAe 146, produced by BAE Systems. However, like the Dash 7 before it, the BAe 146 was tuned to a very specific market, city-center to city-center service where low noise and excellent takeoff performance were paramount. Like the Dash 7, the market niche for this design proved to be fairly small, and its four engines meant it had higher maintenance costs than twin-engine designs. Unlike the Dash 7, BAe did not respond by producing a twin-engine design that filled the same range requirements but offering lower operational costs.
This was addressed by Bombardier's twin-engine Canadair Regional Jet, which became a best-seller. The CRJ's range is enough to fill mid-range routes as well, routes previously served by larger aircraft such as the Boeing 737 and DC-9. These aircraft were originally intended to be used for direct airport-to-airport flights, bypassing hubs, and led to industry-wide discussions about the decline of the hub-and-spoke model. Although not as economical as the turboprop, by flying directly to and from smaller airports, they reduced the need for low-cost regional airliners. And although turboprops are quiet to outside observers, propwash makes them very noisy inside. Passengers greatly preferred jets, both for real and perceptual reasons.
As had happened with the turboprops of only a few years earlier, the success of the CRJ led to the introduction of a host of competitors. The only successful example is the Embraer ERJ 145, which has seen excellent sales and has competed strongly with the CRJ in most markets. Bombardier and Embraer have been locked in a series of counter-lawsuits over export taxes and subsidies ever since. The ERJ's success led to a totally new version, the Embraer E-Jets series, which Bombardier chose not to compete against until recently, with the announced Bombardier CSeries.
Other competitors have not been successful. Fairchild Dornier introduced the Fairchild Dornier 328JET to compete, but went bankrupt soon afterwards and the type did not enter large scale production. Their bankruptcy also ended development of the more competitive Fairchild-Dornier 728, which had attracted strong airline interest.
The CRJ and ERJ success also played a minor part in the failure of Fokker, whose Fokker 100 found itself squeezed on both sides by new models of the Boeing 737 and Airbus A319 on the "large" side and the RJs on the "small side". Bombardier turned down the chance to purchase Fokker's assets, feeling that the 100-seat market was already saturated by designs like the A319.
The Sukhoi Superjet 100, a 60 to 95-seat jet developed by the Russian aerospace firm Sukhoi with assistance of Ilyushin and Boeing entered service in 2011. The Antonov An-148 entered service in 2009 but it remains to be seen if it will have any success in a market that has been fairly hesitant to adopt aircraft from the former Soviet Union.
Recent changes: economics and operations[edit | edit source]
In 2005, the "regional jet" boom suddenly collapsed, as increasing fuel prices and airline bankruptcies led to a rethinking of route structures. The high per-seat operational costs of the classic 50-seat regional jet have been exacerbated by an environment of ever-lowering fares. Furthermore, RJs increasingly were assigned to operate flights of two hours or more. This led to dissatisfied passengers, as their comfort and ergonomics compare unfavorably to the larger "mainline" jets which they replaced on these flights. Fifty-seat regional jets are being retired at accelerated rates, affecting both their resale value and the value of their parts. Bombardier's CRJ100 and CRJ200 are seeing very high retirement rates, much higher than for Embraer aircraft, not only because of their inefficiency but because the airlines operating them fell victim to many bankruptcies and reorganizations, and there were no other willing takers for the airplanes. While Embraer regional jets fared better, the retirement of the Embraer ERJ 50 seat models is expected to increase even more because their economic value is hurt by Rolls-Royce's tighter control over after-market engine parts (compared to General Electric). On the one hand, Rolls Royce's "TotalCare" program provides smaller airlines with engine maintenance programs they cannot run themselves and helps support the resale value of the engines; on the other hand, Rolls Royce's restrictions on where aftermarket parts can be sourced increases the price of the engines and the total cost of operating an already economically unattractive aircraft.
Further, the replacement of the hub-and-spoke model simply never took place. The economics and routing advantages of this mode of operation were simply too great. As the hub-and-spoke model has always been supported by low-cost regional airliners, turboprop designs once again became a major market. Improving their attractiveness in relation to the jets was the introduction of active noise-reduction systems, which reduced cabin noise to levels comparable, or even lower, than the RJ's. Bombardier found their Dash 8 to be in high demand once again, and shifted production to their latest model, the Bombardier Q400.
In late 2005, Bombardier suspended its CRJ-200 production line. The new trend is for larger aircraft with better economics, exemplified by Bombardier's 70-seat CRJ-700 and the 70-110-seat E-Jet series. The E-Jets in particular blur the line between "mainline" and "regional," as their cabin comfort is comparable or superior to traditional narrowbody jets like the Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 while offering ranges of over 2,000 miles, greater than some early mainline jet airliners such as the DC-9 and BAC-111.
Regional airliners are also being blamed for flight delays in the US. According to the Wall Street Journal, 30% of flights in June 2007 were late by an average of 62 minutes. The delays are being blamed on an increased number of smaller aircraft, which the airlines are using in order to fill out schedules and provide more flights per day. This has led to the grounding of 385 larger aircraft and the adding of 1,029 regionals over the period from 2000 to 2006. The downside to this approach is that airports are running out of gates, causing delays as aircraft queue up for this limited resource.
Flight Global fleet forecasts 3,081 turboprop deliveries for a $63 Bn value and 4,042 regional jet deliveries for a $130 Bn value for the 2016–2035 period. In turboprops, ATR with 12% of the market should dominate the Dash 8 Q400 (3%); while Embraer with 40% should lead the Regional Jets market above the Mitsubishi MRJ (17%) and SSJ100 (4%), while Bombardier Aerospace moves to the small narrowbody aircraft with the CSeries and doesn't develop the CRJ700 series (2%).
Embraer claims crossover regional jets are more cost-efficient than current turboprops beyond Template:Cvt, representing 45% of 70-seat turboprops flights in 2017, leading Widerøe to switch to E-Jets E2 except for destinations with short runways and severe weather conditions north of the Arctic Circle or AirBaltic to replace its 12 Q400s by CSeries. From 2018 to 2037, ATR forecasts 3,020 turboprop deliveries : 630 with 40-60 seats and 2,390 with 61-80 seats.
Features[edit | edit source]
Seating on regional airliners tends to be narrow and tight, and passengers typically are restricted from bringing on board carry-on items which would fit without difficulty in the overhead bins of larger aircraft. Often carry-on luggage is collected immediately prior to boarding and placed in the cargo hold, where it can be quickly retrieved by the ground staff while the passengers exit. Regional airliners have been described by many passengers as having cramped and claustrophobia-inducing aircraft cabins. While designed primarily for medium stage lengths, regional jets may now be found supplementing major trunk routes alongside traditional larger jet aircraft. RJs allow airlines to open new "long, thin" routings with jet equipment which heretofore did not exist, such as Atlanta to Monterrey, Nuevo León. RJs have also meant a return of jet service to cities where full-size jet service had departed over a decade ago, such as Macon, Georgia, and Brownsville, Texas.
The notion that regional jet aircraft are less expensive (per seat mile) than traditional jets is a common misconception. On a seat-mile basis the RJ's cost is in fact higher. Regional jets are operated in the USA under a fee-per-departure payment structure. In this payment structure, a traditional airline contracts with a regional airline company on a per departure or per flight basis regardless of the number of passengers or the length of the flight. The traditional airline gets to keep all the revenue from the ticket sale and only pays the regional partner the agreed to amount. These contracts tend to be long term agreements, typically 10 year terms. The regional airline partner can then be relatively sure of the revenue side and only has to control cost in order to earn a modest return. However, these "regional airlines," now really "small jet providers" of contracted aircraft, have been squeezed by U.S. airline bankruptcies, fleet reductions and increasing operating costs. U.S. Legacy carriers have no longer been willing to shoulder burdensome losses from guaranteed-profit contracts with their small jet providers, and accordingly have played carrier against carrier in a low-bid game that has left hundreds of RJs idle and others potentially on their way to being laid up.
The idea that regional jets would provide point-to-point service and bypass the hub-and-spoke system may not be materializing as it was expected. As of January 2003, 90% of all regional jet flights in the United States had a hub or major airport at one end of that flight, and this number has been gradually increasing since 1995.
In production aircraft[edit | edit source]
|Model||First flight||Net orders||Deliveries||Backlog||MTOW (t)||seats||Range (nmi)|
|Embraer E-Jet/E-Jets E2||19/02/2002||1889||1457||423||38.6-61.5||66-146||2,150-2,850|
|RUAG Dornier 228NG||12/11/2009||12||6||6||6.4||19||1,000|
|Viking Air Twin Otter-400||01/10/2008||104||81||23||5.6||19||775|
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Template:Cite document
- Javier Irastorza Mediavilla (30 January 2018). "Turboprop market vs. oil price (ATR figures 2017 update)". https://theblogbyjavier.com/2018/01/30/turboprop-market-vs-oil-price-atr-figures-2017-update/.
- "Global turboprop capacity up 22% since 2009; Vancouver is ‘Top of the Props’ as Canada overtakes US to become top market". Airline Network News & Analysis. 30 Jan 2019. https://www.anna.aero/2019/01/30/global-turboprop-capacity-up-22-since-2009-vancouver-is-top-of-the-props-as-canada-overtakes-us-to-become-top-market/.
- Justin Bachman (April 30, 2008). Airlines give propellers another spin. Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved on 2008-05-01.
- Barbara De Lollis; Barbara Hansen (September 5, 2006). "Regional jet use stabilizing". USA Today. https://www.usatoday.com/money/biztravel/2006-09-05-small-jets-usat_x.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-02.
- Compart, Andrew, Powering down, Aviation Week and Space Technology, February 25, 2013, pp. 34–35
- Compart, Andrew, Young at part, Aviation Week and Space Technology, April 15, 2013, pp.44–46
- Roma Luciw (October 28, 2005). "Bomber suspends CRJ200 production". The Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/bomber-suspends-crj200-production/article20426556/.
- Alan Zibel (August 8, 2007). "Flight Delays Soar to 13-Year High". Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/08/07/AR2007080700583.html?tid=informbox. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
- Scott McCartney (August 13, 2007). As Big Airlines Turn to Smaller Commercial Jets and Schedule More Flights, Airline Delays Worsen. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 2008-03-25.
- "Flight Fleet Forecast Summary". Flight Global. 2016. https://www.flightglobal.com/asset/2509.
- "Ascend regional airliner fleet forecast". Flight Global. 13 October 2016. https://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/insight-from-flightglobal-ascend-regional-airliner-429942/.
- Bernie Baldwin (Jan 12, 2018). "Turboprops Could Face Crossover Narrowbody Jet Challenge". Aviation Week & Space Technology. http://aviationweek.com/crossover-narrowbody-jets/turboprops-could-face-crossover-narrowbody-jet-challenge.
- [www.atraircraft.com/datas/download_center/151/1011_makretforecast_digital_151.pdf Turboprop market forecast 2018-2037] (June 2018).
- Barbara De Lollis; Barbara Hansen (2006-09-05). "Regional jet use stabilizing". USA Today. https://www.usatoday.com/money/biztravel/2006-09-05-small-jets-usat_x.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-02.
- David Grossman (February 14, 2005). "State of Independence is still unclear". USA Today. https://www.usatoday.com/travel/columnist/grossman/2005-02-11-grossman_x.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-25.
- Craig Hoyle (9 Nov 2018). "World airliner directory - Regionals". Flight Global. https://www.flightglobal.com/asset/25573.