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The Vympel R-77 (NATO codename: AA-12 "Adder") is a (former Soviet) Russian, medium range, active radar guided air-to-air missile. Because it was designed as the direct counterpart to the American AIM-120 AMRAAM, it was nicknamed "Amraamski".


Development of the R-77 began in the year 1982. The project was called "Product-170". Testing the missile began in the year 1984. It was designed as a "Fire and Forget" missile, that can be used against helicopters, high- and low altitude aircraft, Surface-to-air missiles, such as the Patriot missile and Precision guided munitions (PGM).

The export variant is called RVV-AE, meaning "Raketa Vosduch-Vosduch, Aktivnaya, Eksportnaya" (Air-to-Air missile, active radar, export variant). The missile was unveiled at the MosAeroShow in 1992. At this time it was named "Amraamski" by Western journalists, because its active radar guided design had many similarities to its American counterpart AIM-120 AMRAAM. Till 1994 about 200 Vympel R-77 were built.


Vympel R-77
Manufacturer Vympel
Entered service 1994
Length 3.6 m
Diameter 200 mm
Weight 175 kg (R-77); 226 kg (R-77M1)
Wingspan 350 mm
Engine Solid fuel rocket motor (R-77); air breathing ramjet (R-77M1)
Range 80-160 km
Speed Mach 4.5
Service ceiling 5-25,000 m